As we know that biology is the study of living organisms or living things. It is a combination of two words ‘bios’ which means life and ‘logos’ means happening. It deals with all aspects of life in which different types of species involved. As environmental science is a vast field which deals with all types of living things such as plants, animals or insects etc. There are different branches of environmental science one of them is biodiversity. The study of variation of different living organisms such as plants and animals in a specific area for the sake of food, living, and shelter is called asbiodiversity.
This branch deals with plants and animal variation because as we know that diversity means numbers of species and different types of species present in a particular area. And when it combines with ‘Bio’ then this is the study of different types and number of species of plants and animals present in a specific area to built an ecosystem. Basically biodiversity is derived to calculate the different aspects of biological system. It is very much developed in tropical areas on Earth and prohibited in the Polar Regions. Due to the huge increase in the biodiversity biologists declared the year of 2010 as the year of International Biodiversity.
Types of Biodiversity:
In biodiversity on the basis of variation and distribution, four types are evolved which deals with living species separately. The types of biodiversity vary from place to place. These types are as follows
- Genetic Diversity
- Species Diversity
- Ecological Diversity
- Functional Diversity
It is a type of biodiversity which deals with the living organisms genetically i.e. variation in the genes of the species and the genetic make up of species differ from each other to produce a new generation is categorized as genetic diversity.
The change happening in the variety of different types of living organisms present in different places in the same geographical area is referred as specie diversity.
As we know that ecology is the study of different communities among their environment so, it is that branch of biodiversity which deals with variation in the ecological area or environment such as desert, forests, grassland, streams and coral reefs etc. is known as ecological diversity.
Functional diversity is that type of biodiversity which is the study of different types of chemical processes of species fir their survival on the land. These processes include such as energy flow and cycling of matter etc.
Importance of Biodiversity:
Biodiversity has very much important ecologically and economically and it also plays an important role in our daily life because it is applicable in different fields for the sake of better development in the modern World. Some of the important fields on which biodiversity is applicable are as follows
- Importance in Agriculture:
In agricultural field biodiversity plays an important role to produce a new variety of plants or crops by producing a change in their genetic traits and it also help in preventing the crops from diseases such as coffee plants, rice plants etc. it is also called as agricultural biodiversity.
- Importance in Human Life:
Biodiversity plays a major role in our lives because they are very useful for the production of different useful products such as food, water and different type of medicines. It also involves in fighting against different disasters. It produces a great variety of pharmaceutical products which help in recovery.
- Industrial Importance of Biodiversity:
In the field of industry it is also used to produce different kinds of materials such as building material which derived from different kinds of biological resources and through biodiversity. The industrial products which are produce as a result of biodiversity are fibers, dyes, oil, rubber etc.